Dress shoe anatomy can confuse even the most style-conscious of men. But having a good understanding of the shoe toe is especially crucial because it’s literally the most forward-projecting point of your body.
This post will specifically compare three common types of shoe toe – cap-toes, plain-toes, and wingtips.
Cap-toes and wingtips have a line of stitching separating the toe area from the rest of the shoe, while plain-toes have no stitching here at all.
You need to know what these types of shoe toes look like, as well as when they are (and are not) appropriate to wear.
Before we go on to compare these specific types, it’s important to get a broad understanding of what toe caps really are.
Dress Shoe Toes: An Introduction
The “toe” of a shoe is the front part of a closed-toe shoe. It covers the toes of your foot. The part of the shoe that covers the toes is also known as the “toebox”.
That’s the most basic definition of a shoe toe and the first thing to get to grips with.
Dress shoes can have shoe toes in many different shapes and forms.
Put simply, there are three main ways in which shoe toes can differ from one another:
- Cap stitching
Common shoe toe shapes include “round”, “almond”, “pointed”, and “square”. Round and almond are the most common in the modern era, while pointed and square have largely fallen out of favor.
As you’d expect, the shape of a shoe toe has a huge influence on the overall aesthetic.
Shoe toes may also be adorned with decorative features. The most important feature would be brogueing.
Brogue patterns are perforations (punctures) in the leather that often form a particular shape. The toe of a shoe is a common place for brogueing, with the “medallion” being one of the most well-known patterns.
But let’s move on to the main topic of today – cap stitching.
What Exactly Is Cap Stitching?
In many dress shoes, the toe area is separated from the rest of the shoe with a line of stitching that runs from the welt on one side to the other. This is known as cap stitching.
It forms an artificial border between the toe box and the vamp of the shoe.
In some cases, this stitching doesn’t actually serve any purpose and is simply aesthetic.
In other cases, however, the stitching is actually present because an additional piece of leather (a toe cap) has been sewn onto the shoe toe to serve as reinforcement.
The shape of this stitching can take different forms – cap-toes (horizontal line) and wingtips (W-shaped line) are by far the most common.
Here’s a cap-toe pair of Derbys on
But there are many shoes without any stitching separating the toe from the rest of the shoe. These should most accurately be labeled plain-toe shoes.
Now it’s time to compare these in a little more detail.
Cap Toe Vs Plain Toe: What’s The Difference?
Cap toe shoes have a horizontal line of stitching separating the toe box from the vamp, running from the welt on one side to the other. Plain toes, on the other hand, have no stitching separating the toe from the vamp.
Plain toe dress shoes are a little more formal than cap toe shoes which are generally considered more a little more decorative and better suited to business attire than truly formal attire.
This is a pair of plain toe patent leather Oxford shoes. Perfect for black-tie; ultra-formal.
But that’s not to say that all plain toes look formal. On the contrary – there are plenty of plain toes that look casual because of the color, material, and presence of decorative features. It all plays a role.
It’s just that if the only difference between a pair of shoes was that one was cap toe and one was plain toe, the plain toe would most likely look more formal.
Cap toes and plain toes can be found on several different types of dress shoes. The most common ones are Oxfords, Derbys, and monkstraps.
The “cap toe Oxford” is the most popular form of Oxford shoe. While it has the typical closed lacing system you’d find on any Oxford shoe, the cap toe Oxford is defined by the horizontal stitching you’d find separating the toe box from the vamp.
Here’s a pair of cap toe Oxford shoes on
In most cap toe Oxfords, this stitching serves to attach an extra piece of leather – the toe cap – across the toe box. In other cases though, the stitching is merely aesthetic and doesn’t serve a purpose.
Black cap toe Oxfords are arguably the most popular shoes to wear with traditional business suits – stylish and formal, but not too formal.
In contrast to cap toe shoes, plain toes don’t feature any stitching to separate the toe box.
This means all you’ve got is the vamp (front of the shoe) and the quarter (back of the shoe). That’s it.
It gives the shoe a very simple and elegant feel.
Black plain toe Oxford shoes in patent leather or polished calfskin leather are favorites for evening wear, going well with tuxedos. They generally look a little more formal than cap toe Oxfords which look better with business attire.
Cap Toes And Plain Toes: Common Features
While the horizontal stitching at the toe box is what sets them apart, here are some features that both cap toe and plain toe shoes can have in common.
1. Shoe Types
Cap toes and plain toes can be found on many different dress shoes including Oxfords, Derbys, and monkstraps.
But they can also be found on other types of shoes including boots. Even with these, however, plain toe boots generally look a little more formal than cap toes.
Both cap toe shoes and plain toe shoes can come in a variety of different colors including black, cognac, brown, and tan brown.
Black is the most formal, while lighter and brighter colors look more casual.
But both can also come in lighter, brighter, and bolder colors as well. Casual shoes often do. There’s really no limit – there’s a huge variety out there.
They can also come in a variety of different materials, with leather and suede being the most common. Leather is the most formal and suede is more casual.
Even among leather cap toes and plain toes, the shinier leather types (such as patent) will look more formal than the less shiny ones.
Cap toes and plain toe shoes may or may not have decorative perforations (brogueing) across the toe box and vamp.
While both cap toes and plain toes can have brogue patterns over them, plain toes often don’t.
These decorations will always make a shoe look more casual.
5. Color Variation
Both plain toes and cap toe shoes can have color variation in the different parts of the shoe. Cap toes give you more opportunity for color variation as the color of the toe box can be different to the color of the vamp and the quarter.
These types of cap toes are called “spectators” and will always look more casual than having the shoe in a uniform color.
Cap Toe Vs Wingtip: What’s The Difference?
A wingtip is any shoe that has a wing-shaped line of stitching on the upper, separating the toe from the rest of the shoe. In contrast, a cap toe is any shoe where there is a horizontal line stitched on the upper to isolate the toe box.
Ultimately, the main difference is the shape of the line of stitching used to cordon off the toe area.
The terms are often confused, but keeping it as simple as that is the key.
Cap toe and wingtip stitching can be seen on many different types of shoes, including Oxfords, Derbys, and monkstraps.
The horizontal line of the cap toe is generally seen as more formal than the more decorative “W” shaped stitching of the wingtip.
By that I mean – if all that separated a pair of shoes was that one was a cap toe and one was a wingtip, the wingtip would look more casual.
Because of this, cap toes are usually better suited to business professional attire than wingtips are. Although it’s possible to wear a wingtip with a business suit, leather cap toe Oxfords and Derbys would be more appropriate.
Wingtips are great for smart-casual and business-casual attire – a notch less formal than business professional attire.
Wingtips are often incorrectly referred to as “brogues”. While it’s true that wingtips usually feature brogue patterns (decorative perforations), this isn’t always the case.
There are wingtips that don’t feature any perforative decorations and simply have the wing-shaped (i.e W-shaped) stitching on the upper.
These should simply be called “wingtips” and not “brogues”.
But you’re more likely to find wingtip shoes with brogue patterns (full, semi, or quarter) than without them.
It’s a very common feature of wingtips – the decorative nature of brogue-ing complements the decorative nature of the wing-shaped stitching very well.
Cap toe shoes can also feature brogue patterns, but you’re less likely to misuse the terminology. Cap toe shoes with brogueing would just be called “brogue cap toes” and not just “brogues”.
So, just remember that brogue refers to the perforated patterns that can be included on any type of shoe. “Cap toe” and “wingtip” refer to different types of stitching you can get on the upper of any type of shoe.
Cap Toes And Wingtips: Common Features
We’ve already talked about how they can both have brogue patterns. Here are some other features that both cap toe shoes and wingtip shoes can have.
1. Color Variation
Although most dress shoes will be a single, uniform color, both cap toes and wingtips can sometimes have color variation between the different sections of the shoes.
Let’s take a shoe with three distinct sections – the quarter (back), vamp (middle), and the toe.
The toe could be sectioned off with a horizontal line of stitching (cap toe) or a W-shaped line of stitching (wingtip).
If you had all three sections a different color, or even just the middle section, it would lead to a very eye-catching outcome.
These shoes are called “spectators”. Wingtips can often be found as spectators as they’re generally seen as more casual, but cap toes can be too.
Here’s a typical pair of wingtip spectators on
Adding some color variation would make them even more casual.
Brogue patterns on top would take them to a different level of casual, although they’d still be suitable for most smart-casual occasions.
Spectators aren’t to everyone’s taste and certainly shouldn’t be the first pair of dress shoes you buy.
But they’re great when you want something more attention-grabbing and different to a more straightforward and formal-looking pair of cap toes or wingtips.
Both cap toes and wingtips can come in any shoe material you can think of, but leather and suede would be the most common by far.
Leather will be more formal than suede. With both, darker colors will look more formal than lighter colors.
Wingtips look especially good in lighter and brighter colors, including more unusual ones like blue and burgundy red.
This is, once again, because wingtips just look more casual and so will work well with casual colors.
Cap toes are more likely to be found on more formal, leather dress shoes as opposed to colorful suede ones. This isn’t a hard and fast rule, however.
To wrap that all up – cap toe, plain toe, wingtip – they all refer to the stitching (or lack of stitching) that separates the toe from the rest of the shoe.
Cap toes and wingtips have a line of stitching on the upper that separates the toe, while plain toes do not.
But they can all be included in many different types of shoes ranging from very formal to pretty casual.
Hopefully, you’ve now got a much better idea of what they look like and how to wear them.